Volume 9, Issue 3 (volume9, Issue 3 2021)                   CPJ 2021, 9(3): 70-88 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Amiri M, karami J, Momeni K. The Effect of Brain Training on Suppression of Theta/Alpha Ratio and Working Memory of 8 to 12 year old Children with Dyslexia and Dysgraphia. CPJ 2021; 9 (3) :70-88
URL: http://jcp.khu.ac.ir/article-1-3446-en.html
Razi University , j.karami@razi.ac.ir
Abstract:   (4660 Views)
Due to the importance of rehabilitation among children with special learning disabilities, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of brain Gym on suppression of theta/alpha ratio and working memory of students aged 8 to 12 years with dyslexia or dysgraphia. This research was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The population of this study included all girls and boys with reading or writing disorders referring to special centers for learning disabilities in Kermanshah. The convenience sampling methods were used. For this purpose, according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 students aged 8 to 12 years were selected and randomly allocated into two groups of 10 people. The experimental group were received brain Gym intervention for 20 sessions of 20 minutes over 10 weeks. In order to record the brain waves of the participants, a dual-channel neurofeedback device was used. Moreover, the Wechsler memory software was used to measure their active memory. To analyze the data, univariate one-way covariance analysis and multivariate one-way covariance analysis were used using SPSS software version 26. The results showed that the ratio of theta waves to alpha in the experimental group was significantly reduced and active memory span in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to the control group (P < .05). The findings of this study indicated that brain exercise can significantly suppress the ratio of theta waves to alpha and also improve working memory among children with special learning disabilities. The findings confirm the neurological evidence for the positive effect of the brain Gym intervention on the modulation of brain waves and working memory in children with dyslexia or dysgraphia.
Full-Text [PDF 1355 kb]   (945 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Applicable | Subject: psychology of human behavior
Received: 2021/06/15 | Accepted: 2021/10/2 | Published: 2021/10/2

1. Abduh, B., & Tahar, M. M. (2018). The Effectiveness of Brain Gym and Brain Training Intervention on Working Memory Performance of Student with Learning Disability. Journal of ICSAR, 2(2), 105-111. [DOI:10.17977/um005v2i22018p105]
2. American Psychiatric Association, APA (Ed.). (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-5® (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub. [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
3. Aristiyani, C. (2015). Pengaruh Senam Otak Arm Activation (Mengaktifkan Tangan)
4. T
5. erhadap Kemampuan Menulis Permulaan Pada Anak Autistik Kelas VI Di Sekolah Luar Biasa Autisma Dian Amanah Yogyakarta (Doctoral Dissertation, Fakultas Ilmu Pendidikan).4(3), 1-12.
6. Auerbach, J. Gross-Tsur, V. Manor, O. & Shalev, R. (2008). Emotional and behavioral characteristics over a six-year period in youths with persistent and nonpersistent dyscalculia. Journal of learning disabilities, 41(3), 263-273. [DOI:10.1177/0022219408315637]
7. Barbosa, T., Rodrigues, C. C., Mello, C. B. D., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2019). Executive functions in children with dyslexia. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria, 77(4), 254-259.‌ [DOI:10.1590/0004-282x20190033]
8. Becerra, J. T., Fernandez, T., & Harmony, M. (2006). Follow up Study of Learning Disabled Children Treated with Neurofeedback or Placebo. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 37(3), 198-204. [DOI:10.1177/155005940603700307]
9. Benton, David and Naomi Burgess. (2009). the effect of the consumption of water on the memory and attention of children. Appetite 53: 143-146. [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2009.05.006]
10. Brain Gym® International Website. (2021). http://www.braingym.org
11. Brown. Kathy. (2012). Educate your brain: use mind- body balance to learn faster, work smarter, and move more easily through life. Published by Balance Point Publishing LLC. Phoenix, Arizona.
12. Bundens, S. P. (2000). Brain Gym and its effect on the reading comprehension of third grade students with learning disabilities. Master of Arts Degree of the Graduate School, Rowan University.
13. Cancela, J. M., Suárez, M. H. V., Vasconcelos, J., Lima, A., & Ayán, C. (2015). Efficacy of brain gym training on the cognitive performance and fitness level of active older adults: a preliminary study. Journal of aging and physical activity, 23(4), 653-658. [DOI:10.1123/japa.2014-0044]
14. Carter, Matthew D. Tatum, Mary. Gorham-Rowan, Mary. (2015). The Effects of Educational Kinesiology Tasks on Stuttering Frequency of a Pre-School Child Who Stutters. The Open Rehabilitation Journal, 2015, 8, 9-16.
15. Catton, S. M., Kiely, P. M., Crewther, D. P., Thamson, B., Laycok, R., Crewther, S.G (2005). Anormative and reliability study for the Raven, s Coloured Progressive Matrices for primary school aged children from Victoria, Australia, Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 3 647-659. [DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2005.02.015]
16. Chong, Jason A. (2009). Does Chronic Methamphetamine Use Result in a Consistent Profile of Cognitive Deficits? Master's thesis, Pacific University.
17. Costanzo, F., Varuzza, C., Rossi, S., Sdoia, S., Varvara, P., Oliveri, M., & Menghini, D. (2016). Evidence for reading improvement following tDCS treatment in children and adolescents with Dyslexia. Restorative neurology and neuroscience, 34(2), 215-226. [DOI:10.3233/RNN-150561]
18. Dennison, P. Dennison, G. (1992). Brain Gym: Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.
19. Dennison, P. E., & Dennison, G. E. (1994). Brain Gym® teacher's edition-- Revised. Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics.
20. Dennison, P. E., & Dennison, G. E. (2007). Brain gym 101: Balance for daily life (3rd Ed.). Ventura, CA: Edu-Kinesthetics.
21. Dustman, R. (1990). Age and physical fitness effects on EEG, ERP's, visual sensitivity, and cognition. Neurobiological Aging, 11, 193-200. [DOI:10.1016/0197-4580(90)90545-B]
22. Fadhlia, T. N. (2015). Brain Gym method to increase reading ability of student with learning disabilities. Journal SAINS, Vol, 4, 595-600.
23. Ferna'ndez, T., Harmony, T., Ferna'ndez-Bouzas, A., Silva, J., Herrera, W., Santiago-Rodrı'guez, E., & Sa'nchez, L. (2002). Sources of EEG activity in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 33, 160-164. [DOI:10.1177/155005940203300405]
24. Fernández T, Herrera W, Harmony T, Díaz-Comas L, Santiago E, Sánchez, et al. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment inlearning disabled children. Clin Electroencephalogr; 34: 145-152. [DOI:10.1177/155005940303400308]
25. Fernández, T., Bosch-Bayard, J., Harmony, T., Caballero, M. I., Díaz-Comas, L., Galán, L., & Otero-Ojeda, G. (2016). Neurofeedback in learning disabled children: visual versus auditory reinforcement. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 41(1), 27-37. [DOI:10.1007/s10484-015-9309-6]
26. Fernández, T., Harmony, T., Fernández-Bouzas, A., Díaz-Comas, L., Prado-Alcalá, R. A., Valdés-Sosa, P., & Aubert, E. (2007). Changes in EEG current sources induced by neurofeedback in learning disabled children. An exploratory study. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback, 32(3-4), 169-183. [DOI:10.1007/s10484-007-9044-8]
27. Fortes, I. S., Paula, C. S., Oliveira, M. C., Bordin, I. A., de Jesus Mari, J., & Rohde, L. A. (2016). A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of DSM-5 specific learning disorders in representative school samples from the second to sixth grade in Brazil.European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 25(2), 195-207. [DOI:10.1007/s00787-015-0708-2]
28. Garcia, R. B., Mammarella, I. C., Tripodi, D., & Cornoldi, C. (2014). Visuospatial working memory for locations, colours, and binding in typically developing children and in children with dyslexia and non-verbal learning disability. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32(1), 17-33. [DOI:10.1111/bjdp.12019]
29. Gaurav, S., Meenakshi, S., Jayshri, G., & Ramanjan, S. (2016). Effect of alterations in breathing pattern on EEG activity in normal human subjects. Int J Curr Res Med Sci, 2, 38-45.‌ [DOI:10.22192/ijcrms.2016.02.12.007]
30. Hillman, C, Erickson, K., and Kramer, A. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Science and Society, 9(2), 58-65. [DOI:10.1038/nrn2298]
31. Hyatt, K.J. (2007). Brain Gym®: Building stronger brains or wishful thinking? Remedial and Special Education, 28(2), 117-124. [DOI:10.1177/07419325070280020201]
32. Jurcak, V., Tsuzuki, D., & Dan, I. (2007). 10/20, 10/10, and 10/5 systems revisited: their validity as relative head-surface-based positioning systems. Neuroimage, 34(4), 1600-1611.‌ [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.09.024]
33. Lardon, M. and Polich, J. (1996). EEG changes from long-term physical exercise. Biological Psychology, 44, 19-30. [DOI:10.1016/S0301-0511(96)05198-8]
34. Maes- Thyret, Sue. (1999). Biofeedback and Brain Gym. Brain Gym International Conference at Victoria, British Columbia.
35. Martinez Perez, T., Majerus, S., & Poncelet, M. (2012). The contribution of short-term memory for serial order to early reading acquisition: evidence from a longitudinal study. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 708-723. [DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.11.007]
36. Mayringer, H., & Wimmer, H. (2002). No deficits at the point of hemispheric indecision. Neuropsychologia, 40, 701-704. [DOI:10.1016/S0028-3932(01)00191-9]
37. Mohan, A., Singh, A. P., & Mandal, M. K. (2001). Transfer and interference of motor skills in people with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45, 361-369. [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2788.2001.00341.x]
38. Ningrum, A. P., Huda, A., & Praherdhiono, H. (2018). Brain Gym Video Model for Improving the Beginning Writing Abilities of the Autistic Students. Journal of ICSAR, 2(2), 175-179. [DOI:10.17977/um005v2i22018p175]
39. Ocampo Jr, J. M., Varela, L. P., & Ocampo, L. V. (2017). Effectiveness of Brain Gym Activities in Enhancing Writing Performance of Grade I Pupils. Sosiohumanika, 10(2), 179-190.
40. Parellangi, A., Dharma, K. K., Purwanto, E., & Firdaus, R. (2019). The Intervention of Brain Gym in Increasing the Quality of Life on the Elderly. Asian Community Health Nursing Research, 1(1), 30-35. [DOI:10.29253/achnr.2019.12812]
41. Rahab, H. (2017). Effect of Brain Gym on Manipulating Skills and Balance For Beginners In Rhythmic Gymnastics. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education & Sport/Science, Movement & Health, 17(1), 66-72.
42. Raven, J. C. & Summers, B. (1986).Manual for Ravens progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scale .Research Supplement, 3, London: Lewis.
43. Rosenblum, S., Aloni, T., & Josman, N. (2010). Relationships between handwriting performance and organizational abilities among children with and without dysgraphia: A preliminary study. Research in developmental disabilities, 31(2), 502-509. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.10.016]
44. Rowan, C. (2009). The Impact of Technology on Child Sensory and Motor Development. S. I. Focus [online]., pp. 2-5.
45. Rumsey, J. M., Nace, K., Donohue, B., Wise, D., Maisog, J. M., & Andreason, P. (1997). A positron emission tomographic study of impaired word recognition and phonological processing in dyslexic men. Archives of Neurology, 54(5), 562-573. [DOI:10.1001/archneur.1997.00550170042013]
46. Saleh, S., & Mazlan, A. (2019). The Effects of Brain-Based Teaching with I-Think Maps and Brain Gym Approach towards Physics Understanding. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 8(1), 12-21. [DOI:10.15294/jpii.v8i1.16022]
47. Sánchez, E. (2013). Effects of a brain improvement program on students' reading achievement. University of North Texas.‌
48. Sangani, A., Jangi, P., Ramak, N., & Ahmadi, A. (2019). Identification of difference of working memory and sensory processing styles in boys and girls with writing-learning disorder. Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Sciences, 6(4), 177. [DOI:10.4103/JNMS.JNMS_12_19]
49. Schwarb, H., Nail, J., & Schumacher, E. H. (2016). Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity. Psychological Research, 80(1), 128-148. [DOI:10.1007/s00426-015-0648-y]
50. Spaulding, L. S., Mostert, M. P., & Beam, A. P. (2010). Is Brain Gym® an effective educational intervention? Exceptionality, 18(1), 18-30. [DOI:10.1080/09362830903462508]
51. Suratun, S., & Tirtayanti, S. (2020). Pengaruh Brain Gym terhadap Konsentrasi Belajar. Jurnal Keperawatan Muhammadiyah, 5(1).101-105. [DOI:10.30651/jkm.v5i1.3625]
52. Watson, A., & Kelso, G. L. (2014). The Effect of Brain Gym® on Academic Engagement for Children with Developmental Disabilities. International Journal of Special Education, 29(2), 75-83.
53. Zhao, J., Yang, Y., Song, Y. W., & Bi, H. Y. (2015). Verbal short-term memory deficits in Chinese children with dyslexia may not be a problem with the activation of phonological representations. Dyslexia, 21(4), 304-322. [DOI:10.1002/dys.1516]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | فصلنامه روانشناسی شناختی

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb